effect of rainfall on soil erosion

At the hillslope scale, conditions at the surface vary with the topographic positions that can cause different hydrologic regimes and erosion … The interrill erosion mechanism is becoming clearer, and process-based models are becoming more accurate. Rhéologie des suspensions à base de lœss en vue l’obtention d’un nouveau matériau, Transport of silver nanoparticles by runoff and erosion – A flume experiment, Effet De La Pluie Sur Le Ruissellement Et L’érosion Dans Un Sol Remanie Végétalisé, Organic Mulch Effects on Runoff and Sediment under Simulated Rainfall Conditions, Effect of Rainfall Intensity, Soil Slope and Geology on Soil Erosion. At the hillslope scale, conditions at the surface vary with the topographic posi-tions that can cause different hydrologic re-gimes and erosion (Huang et al. ... is vulnerable to soil erosion due to heavy rainfall, its high elevation and undulating terrain. Soil erosion induced by rainfall has become one of the major environmental disasters. Soil erosion poses a major threat to the sustainability of natural ecosystems. Keys words __ rain intensity, overland flow, soil erosion, vegetation, selected land slopes under simulated rainfall conditions by using rainfall simulator of size 10 m × 1.2 m × 0.5 m with the locally available soil material in Pantnagar. Therefore, the soil erosion rate increases strongly with increasing organic content and clay content. Then, the furrow ridge will collapse under the impact of both rill and interrill erosion, which may weaken the conservation capacity or even enhance soil erosion. The sediment outflow rate for no mulch treated land was higher as compared to mulch treated lands. 1- Expérimentation de nouveau matériaux dans les procédés d 'épuration. Previous studies have shown that the use of vegetation is an effective way to control soil erosion. The results showed that the upslope-moving rainfalls generated more surface flow from 25% to 700% and less soil erosion than the downslope-moving rainfalls in the dry runs due to the different spatial developing processes of soil surface sealing. However, effects of long‐term located experiment of RFRH on soil erosion and soil quality in sloping farmland are not well understood. Besides, some researchers observed that runo volume and The effects of slope, s, (m/m) and maximum 30 min rainfall intensity, I 30, (mm/h) were significant at the 0.1% level for the 11 storms studied. 1. Soil erosion on cultivated land was primarily affected by moisture content, while on uncultivated land, it was mostly affected by slope steepness. The consequences of soil erosion are primarily centered on reduced agricultural productivity as well as soil quality. In addition, increasing the slope of the flume from 10% to 20% increased the total AgNPs transported with the runoff sediment by a factor 1.5. The runoff and soil loss from the Anthrosol surface were generally higher than those from the Calcaric Cambisol surface. It was carried out under semiarid conditions and infertile sandy soils of Zimbabwe. Rainfall simulation... Conference: Colloque International sur la vulnérabilité des sols méditerranéens à l’érosion hydrique dans un contexte de changement global. Secondly, rainfall regimes had an important effect on runoff and soil loss under different land uses. de Lima and Singh, 2003, de Lima et al., 2008). Keywords: Rainfall simulator, Mulch, Sediment outflow, Runoff, Pantnagar. Soil erosion and runoff generation from a field or a basin depend on several parame-ters, such as climate, soil characteristics, rainfall depth and intensity, and slope mor-phology. The duration of rainfall was fixed (10 minutes) for every mulch treatment. EFFECT OF SOIL TEXTURE, SLOPE GRADIENT AND RAINFALL INTENSITY ON RUNOFF AND EROSION 4.1 Introduction Soil erosion by water occurs due to complex interactions of sub processes between detachment and transport of soil materials. Main storm characteristics and soil losses were plotted and equation of the line of best fit were selected. 2001). The results show that the soil erosion rate in areas of metamorphic rocks shows a marked increase compared with areas of steep slope and sedimentary rocks. Effects of rainfall patterns on runoff and soil erosion in field plots. Runoff and sediments were negligible in covered plots. rainfall moved from the top of a slope to the downslope outlet) than upslope-moving rainfall (i.e. Therefore, in bare plots, although sediment yield was generally low, averaging 74+/-43 kg ha(-1), the mean of runoff achieved a coefficient of 35%, this magnitude has to be taken into consideration in this region verging on aridity. rainfall-runo and soil erosion processes. It can lead to degradation of land productivity and water pollution, which limit human survival and development. This study showed that soil and water conservation management can have a positive effect on runoff and sediment reduction, and traditional sloping farmland should be reconstructed. impact of rainfall patterns on erosion processes has become a popular research subject in recent years. PDF | The objective of this work is to study the effect of rain intensity on overland flow and soil erosion, in a planted soil. Higher rainfall intensity produced less runoff and more sediment for almost each treatment. Therefore, an artificial, simulated rainfall experiment study is conducted to determine the effect of rainfall intensity and vegetation cover on runoff volume, sediment load, and runoff hydraulics characteristics. The total runoff volume was found to be varying with different mulch rates for particular rainfall input and land slope. Mathematical relationships were developed for relating sediment outflow rate, sediment concentration, land slope and rainfall intensity for a particular mulch treatment. The soil critical shear stress, rainfall intensity, and temporal patterns have great influences on the slope effect trend, while the other soil erosion parameters, soil type, hydraulic conductivity, and antecedent soil moisture have minor impacts. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil type and rainfall intensity on sheet erosion processes (hydrological, erosional processes and sediment characteristics) from temperate to … Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Higher concentrations of AgNPs in soil were detected in the BS than in the Sf likely due to the BS having more fine particles (silt and clay). It was observed that values of sediment outflow rate and average sediment concentration had a good correlation with rainfall intensity and land slope for each mulch treatment. Flanagan et al. These results indicate that the geological characteristics to produce soil are closely related to sedimentation before and after erosion, providing basic information for the development of models to predict soil erosion rates. Four storm patterns, each with a different rainfall intensity variation were separated. Effect of Slope, Rainfall Intensity and Mulch on Erosion and Infiltration under Simulated Rain on Purple Soil of South-Western Sichuan Province, China Muhammad Naeem Khan 1, Yuanbo Gong 1,*, Tingxing Hu 1, Rattan Lal 2, Jiangkun Zheng 1, Meta Francis Justine 3, Muhammad Azhar 2,4, Mingxuan Che 1 … Abstract. The runoff distribution pattern was observed to be increasing with the increase in land slope. The quantity of these three types of mulches were taken as, 6 ton/ha, 8 ton/ha and 10 ton/ha and for each mulch treatment, three rainfall intensities viz. Efficacy of Grass for Mitigating Runoff and Erosion from an Artificial Loessial Earthen Road, Prediction of Parameters Describing Phosphorus-Desorption Kinetics in Soils of Galicia (Northwest Spain), Correction Factors In The Determination Of Mean Velocity Of Overland Flow. Neglecting the slope effect on infiltration would generate The dominant sub processes vary according to whether the source area is rill or interrills (Bradford and Huang, 1996). One of the key factors affecting temporal variation of soil erosion is rainfall intensity distribution during a storm event. Therefore, understanding the effects of rainfall intensities on soil nutrient and sediment transportation from farmland via surface runoff is important. The storm patterns were: (1) increasing rainfall intensity (2) increasing then decreasing intensity (3) decreasing intensity (4) decreasing then increasing intensity. The lowest runoff coefficients and the highest soil loss in regime 2 were found in shrub and forest land, respectively, which differed from that of regime 1. The runoff and soil loss from the Anthrosol surface were generally higher than those from the Calcaric Cambisol surface. In particular, storms with increasing rainfall intensity yielded highest quantities of eroded sediments, total runoff and highest sediment concentrations followed by increasing then decreasing, decreasing then increasing and decreasing intensity, respectively. Copyright © 2015 International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation and China Water and Power Press. The effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on runoff, soil loss and rill development were different for the two soils. Erosion agents and patterns profoundly affect hillslope soil loss characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine response of runoff and soil erosion to storm patterns. The rainfall was applied in four events of 15 min each with a total amount of rainfall of 15 mm during each event. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in total runoff, soil loss and sediment concentration across four storm patterns (P<0.001) but no differences in the runoff coefficient. The experiment consists of seven vegetation treat… Soil erosion during rainfall is a complex phenomenon resulting from soil detachment by raindrop impact and surface flow, and transport of particles by rain splash and surface flow (Ellison, 1944, Ellison, 1945).To distinguish between the dominant processes involved in soil loss, upland erosion has been divided into rill and interrill erosion (Meyer et al., 1975). The AgNPs concentration in the runoff sediments increased with subsequent applied rain events. In the present study, hay mulch was selected to observe the effect of mulching in soil loss reduction. Effects of Soil Erosion. During the investigation (November 2016–October 2018), soil water content, rainfall, runoff, and soil erosion were continuously monitored. Slope steepness was an important topographic factor of hillslope rainfall-runo and soil erosion processes. 11cm/h, 13cm/h and 14.65cm/h at 0%, 2% and 4% land slopes were selected. Rainfall kinetic energy plays an important role in breaking down aggregates and forming crusts. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2015.10.001. rainfall moved from the downslope outlet to the top of a slope) (e.g. Introduction. Rainfall events coupled with shallow and gravelly sloping farmland have led to serious soil erosion and associated problems in the Three Gorges reservoir. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Peer review under responsibility of IRTCES and CWPP. Laboratory studies on soil flume have shown that peak discharge and erosion rate are higher under downslope-moving rainfall (i.e. AgNPs were detected in all samples collected. Starting with the minor soil disruption caused by the impact of falling raindrops, splash erosion moves around small particles in the upper soil layer. Water ways may also be blocked, and it may affect water quality. > rainfall intensity > organic content in the soil. and sediment yield was recorded. Effect of tillage, slope, and rainfall on soil surface microtopography quantified by geostatistical and fractal indices during sheet erosion Na Ta tana0214@163.com 1 , Chutian Zhang zhangchutian@nwafu.edu.cn 1 , Hongru Ding dinghongru@nwsuaf.edu.cn 2 and Qingfeng Zhang zhqf@nwsuaf.edu.cn 1 Rainfall amount and intensity were recorded every 24 hours, while sheet erosion was measured from four tillage systems (Conventional Tillage (CT), Mulch Ripping (MR), … agricultural sandy soil (82.22% sand, 11.57% silt and 7.21% clay). Soil erosion on cultivated land was primarily affected by moisture content, while on uncultivated land, it was mostly affected by slope steepness. The used rainfall intensity are 21 mm/h, 30 mm/h , 53 mm/h , 61 mm/h and 73mm/h and the soil tray slope is fixed to 3°.The results have shown that the overland flow velocities and the sediments concentration increased with increasing rainfall intensity. Ridge‐furrow rainfall harvesting (RFRH) planting could improve crop productivity through enhancing water‐use efficiency. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Results showed that in lower rainfall intensities a linear function fits the relationship between soil loss and rainfall intensity whereas this function tends to be non-linear at higher intensities. The flow regime was always laminar and subcritical. However, few attempts have been made to analyze the effects of rainfall and inflow on soil erosion for hillslopes dominated by sheet erosion or rill erosion in the Chinese Mollisol region. Erosion rates were proportional to rainfall, and increase with increasing clay content. Many studies have been conducted at field and laboratory scale to improve the understanding of soil erosion and its relationship with rainfall amount, intensity, and pattern [ 1, 2 These effects were significantly different from those in the USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation), which underpredicted erosion at low slopes. Effect of Subsequent Simulated Rainfalls on Runoff and Erosion cant for percolation, runoff, and splash at P = 0.001, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively. The effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on runoff, soil loss and rill development were different for the two soils. kg− 1) was applied to two soil-flumes with slope percentages of 20% and 10%. After applying the rainfall, samples of the non-transported background soil (BS) and the transported sediment (Sf) were collected from the flume surface. Effect of vegetal cover on runoff and soil erosion under light intensity events. The results revealed the efficiency of vegetation cover reducing runoff and sediments. The study sought to quantify the effect of rainfall characteristics on sheet erosion and maize grain yield under different tillage systems. Also a strong non-linear relationship was found between different quartiles of storm and soil loss. As rainfall continues, the storage of the furrow is exceeded by the volume of rainfall and runoff will overflow the furrow. In semiarid regions, rainfall is one of the primary factors affecting soil erosion and crop production under rain-fed agriculture. February 2017; DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26247.39841. (1988) compared the effects of six different rainfall patterns on runoff and soil … Soil erosion processes during a storm are strongly affected by intra-storm variations in rainfall characteristics. The close relationship between water erosion and rainfall intensity is due to: (1) impact of raindrops on soil surface in high-intensity storms causes increased soil particle detachment (Van Dijk, Bruijnzeel, & Rosewell, 2002); and (2) higher rainfall intensity results in higher rates of infiltration excess runoff, and a much greater transport of suspended sediment load . Higher rainfall intensity produced less runoff and more sediment for almost each treatment. Runoff sediment (RS) and water (RW) were collected from the outlet. Soil Erosion- Causes and Effects. However, concentration varied according to sample type (soil or water), time of collection (for runoff water and sediment) and the slope of the soil flume. If we would consider the usual lower limits from the literature, we would be ignoring an important percent of natural rainfall episodes. Rains around 13.5 J m(-2) mm(-1) of kinetic energy are quite frequent in the study area (34% of recorded rains en 12 years). The average sediment concentration and outflow was found to be increasing with the increase in land slope, but sediment concentration and outflow decreased with increasing mulch rate for particular land slope and rainfall intensity. Soil moisture content and organic matter make up are some of the soil component aspects that determine erosivity of wind or rainfall. At plot scale, contradictory results were derived regarding slope e ects on infiltration (e.g., [17,18]) and soil erosion (e.g., [19,20]). A laboratory rainfall simulation study was conducted on an Ultisol from subtropical China to investigate the effect of rainfall kinetic energy on crusting, infiltration, runoff, and erosion. Field-saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil penetration resistance, and bulk density were recorded periodically in portions … After each erosive rainfall (12 events), Runoff and suspended sediment samples were collected in each plot׳s tank which is located on hillslopes of the basin of Khamsan. Soil erosion and runoff generation from a field or a basin depend on several parameters, such as climate, soil characteristics, rainfall depth and intensity, and slope morphology. However, neither the main effect of the soil type for runoff nor the effect of the interaction between the subsequent rainfall and the soil type for percolation was found to be significant at the The study confirms that AgNPs can be transported by both overland flow and sediment due to erosion. Rainfall intensity plays a dominant role in soil erosion, while rainfall accumulation is the main influencing factor for runoff. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. If soils get saturated with water after prolonged periods of intensive rain, their capacity to absorb water decreases. This impact is even more severe in poorer areas, where farmers often opt to raise row crops, which are particularly susceptible to the effects of soil erosion, putting them more at risk. Plastic rods were used to simulate the plants at different densities: 0 stem/m2 (bared soil), 126 stems/m², 203 stems/m², 461 stems/m² and 2500 stems/m²). Rainfall intensity, slope and antecedent moisture explained 84–89 and 59–66% of the variation in runoff and soil loss, respectively. Gradient on runoff and soil erosion in field plots through enhancing water‐use.... Under rain-fed agriculture soil-flumes with slope percentages of 20 % and 10.... A different rainfall intensity and slope gradient on runoff and soil loss water‐use efficiency and 4 % slopes... Applied in four events of 15 min each with a total amount of intensity! Our service and tailor content and ads: //doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2015.10.001 water content, while rainfall accumulation is the influencing! 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